The Rig-Veda has been translated into English by Ralph T. Linguistic (as well as content-related) evidence suggests that books 2-7 are older than the remaining books. The remaining hymns are mainly addressed to Agni and Indra.
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However, it also contains fragmentary references to historical events, notably the struggle between the early Vedic people (known as Aryans) and their enemies, the Dasa.
The chief gods of the Rig-Veda are Agni, the sacrificial fire, Indra, a heroic god that is praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra, and Soma, the sacred potion, or the plant it is made from.
It is thought that Zoroastrianism and Vedic Hinduism evolved from an earlier common religious culture.
Scholars standardly date the Rig-Veda to the 2nd millennium BC on grounds of its references to late bronze age culture (horse-drawn chariots; mostly bronze, but some iron weapons) and to the assumption that Vedic culture post-dates the Indus Valley Civilisation.
Others argue that the Sarasvati was originally a river in Afghanistan.
These questions are tied to the debate about the Aryan invasion theory vs.
Other prominent gods are Mitra, Varuna and Ushas (the dawn).
Also invoked are Savitar, Vishnu, Rudra, Pushan, Brihaspati, Brahmanaspati, Dyaus Pita (the sky), Prithivi (the earth), Surya (the sun), Vac (the word), Vayu (the wind), the Maruts, the Asvins, the Adityas, the Rbhus, the Vishvadevas (the all-gods) as well as various further minor gods, persons, concepts, phenomena and items.
The Padapatha is, as it were, a commentary to the Samhitapatha, but the two seem to be about co-eval.